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   2015| January-June  | Volume 7 | Issue 1  
    Online since June 17, 2015

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The effects of rigid gas-permeable contact lens wear on tear film of eyes with keratoconus
Nuha Fath-Elrahman, Ibrahim Merghani, Mustafa Abdu, Kamal Hashim Binnawi
January-June 2015, 7(1):6-9
Aim: This is a comparative retrospective study aimed to determine the effect of contact lens wearing on the tear film of patients with keratoconus. Material and Methods: A total number of 150 were screened and 66.67% (100 patients) were found to fulfill the criteria of selection (35.7% males and 64.3% females). The patients were divided into two groups wearing RGP (medium Dk) (50%) and not wearing contact lenses (50%). The tear film quality and quantity were evaluated using tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test. Results: One hundred patients were included in the study, of which 66% were in the age group of 21 - 31 years. Eighty eight percent of the patients wearing contact lenses between 6 months and one year, and 82% of them have moderate keratoconus. Ninety one percent (46% wearing contact lens and 45% not wearing contact lenses) were found with tear break up time less than normal. About 65% (36% wearing contact lenses and 23% not wearing contact lenses) of patients showed abnormal tear volume (6% dry eye and 59% watery eye). Independent sample t- test showed significant differences in TBUT and Schimer test between males and females wearing and not wearing contact lenses (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Tear quality and quantity were abnormal in patients with keratoconus wearing contact lenses than those with keratoconus not wearing contact lenses. Eye care practitioner may benefit from these findings in the care and management of keratoconus patients.
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Prevalence and risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in elderly patients
Jagruti N Vashi, Kavita R Bhatnagar, Renu M Magdum, Akash P Shah, Aman R Khanna, Somil Jagani
January-June 2015, 7(1):1-5
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) in elderly patients and its correlation with systemic disease, personal and environmental factors. Design: Cross-sectional. Materials and Methods: Patients seen from July 2011 to September 2013, visiting ophthalmic OPD of a tertiary care hospital were included in the study. Visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy using +90 D & +78 D, direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy were performed for all cases. The ARMD was confirmed by Fundus Fluroscein Angiography (FFA). The association of ARMD with age, sex, family history of ARMD, history of smoking, occupation, diet, BMI, hypertension, and diabetes was ascertained. Result: Out of 5000 patients screened, 76 were diagnosed with ARMD. The proportion of overall ARMD was 1.52%. The proportion of Dry and Wet ARMD was 1.42% and 0.1%. In our study, we found a significant association of increasing age (P < 0.05), males (P < 0.005), smoking (P < 0.01) and occupation (P < 0.01) with ARMD. Conclusion: The prevalence of ARMD in our population in Maharashtra was found to be low. Visual disability of blinding due to ARMD was of low magnitude. Older age group, male gender, history of smoking and occupation were significant risk factors for ARMD.
  5,070 485 1
External ophthalmomyiasis caused by sheep botfly Oestrus ovis Larva in South of Andhra Pradesh
Chandrasekhar Gujjula, Sudha Regalla, Praneeth Putti, Mahaboob V Shaik
January-June 2015, 7(1):13-15
Myiasis of different organs has been reported in various regions of the world. We report a human case of external ophthalmomyiasis caused by the larva of a sheep botfly, Oestrus ovis, for the first time from Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh, India. A 19-year-old female who is a nursing student presented with symptoms of excessive watering, pain and foreign body sensation in the left eye. The larvae, 10 in number, were observed in bulbar conjunctiva and fornix. After removal of larvae, she showed symptomatic improvement in 1 day.
  4,771 304 -
Barriers to the uptake of cataract surgical services in Sudan: A population based study in Kassala State
Kamal Hashim Binnawi, Mustafa Abdu
January-June 2015, 7(1):10-12
Aim: To determine the barriers to cataract surgery as reported by those with cataract-induced visual impairment in Kassala state, eastern Sudan. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional, population-based survey of people aged 50 years and older. Around 2146 eligible people were identified and 2050 examined (95.5%). Participants with cataract-induced visual impairment (acuity <6/18 in better eye) were also invited to respond to a verbal questionnaire about barriers to cataract surgery. Results: Main barriers for not up-taking cataract surgery services were inability to afford (45.7%), unaware of treatment (14.2%), waiting for maturity (7.1%), contra-indication (7.1%) and unavailability of services (6.3%). Conclusion: Cost and lack of awareness are the most frequent barriers in Kassala state.
  4,552 438 2
Cataract surgery in the exciting eye in sympathetic ophthalmia
Abhay A Lune, Akash P Shah, Sonali A Lune
January-June 2015, 7(1):19-21
Sympathetic ophthalmia (SO) is a rare, bilateral, non-necrotizing, granulomatous panuveitis that occurs following penetrating injury or a surgical procedure in one eye threatening sight in the fellow eye. Visual prognosis is reasonably good with prompt appropriate wound repair and corticosteroids pre and post-operatively. Only in a severely injured eye with no prognosis for vision is enucleation done within 2 weeks of injury to prevent the disease. We report a case of sympathetic ophthalmia with traumatic cataract following penetrating injury in the exciting eye. Cataract surgery with posterior chamber lens implant was done in the exciting eye, with pre-operative and post-operative cover of steroids, yielding good postoperative vision. If the injured eye has any vision, enucleation should be avoided as this may become the better eye if the fellow eye develops severe inflammation. We present this as a rare case report because after a thorough literature search in Pubmed, to the best of our knowledge, such a case has been rarely reported.
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Gangrenous peri-orbital cellulitis in Nigerian children with post-measles malnutrition
Ibrahim Aliyu
January-June 2015, 7(1):22-24
Measles occurs in Nigeria on almost yearly basis despite availability of preventable vaccines. Though the integument is mostly affected, other organs may be involved. Common eye problem associated with measles is xeropthalmia which is due to vitamin A deficiency; however, the case of four children who presented with extensive gangrenous ocular infection with sparing of the oral cavity and cheek is reported.
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Visual and refractive outcome of the first intracorneal continuous ring implantation in Sudan
Kamal Hashim Binnawi, Mustafa Abdu
January-June 2015, 7(1):16-18
The complete intracorneal ring implantation is the new technique in the management of keratoconus. This case report shows the great effect of this new procedure on the first case that underwent this operation in Sudan. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were seen, and 3 months postoperatively, our subject showed good refractive and visual outcomes.
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Causes of poor visual outcome of extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber lens implantation
Amra Nadarevic Vodencarevic, Svjetlana Terzić, Amar Terzić
January-June 2015, 7(1):25-25
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